Diabetes mellitus (DM), frequently known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a long period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased dehydration, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or leads to death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body are not responding properly to the insulin produced. There are three main types of diabetes:
• Type 1 diabetes: Results from the pancreas's failure to produce enough insulin due to loss of beta cells. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" or "juvenile diabetes". The loss of beta cells is caused by an autoimmune response. The cause of this autoimmune response is unknown.
• Type 2 diabetes: Begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses, a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" or "adult-onset diabetes". The most common cause is a combination of excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.
• Gestational diabetes: The third main form, and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index, a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2 the range 25–30 kg/m2 is defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or mental disorder. On average, obese people have greater energy expenditure than their normal counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.
Fundamental information about the Diabetes and Obesity is going to be discussed in International Conference on Diabetes and Endocrinology (Diabetes 2020) which is going to be held during May 25-26, 2020 at Dublin, Ireland with the theme “Current challenges and innovations in the field of Diabetes” under the Organizing Committee Members. This conference is will have the topics like Diabetes and Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders, Pancreatitis And Insulin, Endocrine Glands And Hormones, Clinical Researches In Diabetes. Organizing Committee Members:
• Dr. Nuzhat Chalisa: Clinical Endocrinologist, Loyola university Hospital, Chicago.