Nova In Vitro Fertilization, 2500 Hospital Drive, Building #7, Mountain View, CA 94040, USA
Received Date: April 22, 2021; Accepted Date: May 14, 2021; Published Date: May 22, 2021
Citation: Nitu M (2021) Male Fertility Treatment. J Rep Endo Infert. Vol.6 No.3: 20.
On a worldwide basis, infertility affects nearly 8 to 12% of couples, which is primarily contributed by male infertility. Almost 50% of the infertility issues among couples can be related to male infertility.It is a major cause of concern as this medical condition is related to socio-economic productivity. Several risk factors are associated with male sub-fertility including congenital risk factors and acquired or idiopathic causes resulting in impaired spermatogenesis. In addition to these factors, the underlying health condition of males also playsa significant role in reduced spermatogenesis. Accurate diagnosis and precise treatment of the underlying medical condition in addition to reversal of lifestyle disorders can be immensely beneficial in restoring male fertility.
Asfar as diagnosisis concerned,semen analysisremainsthe most reliable and conclusive evaluation of male infertility. However, the etiology of male infertility is a complex phenomenon involving the role of pituitary glands and gonads apart from other risk factors that play a part either individually or in combination. Severe studies are being actively pursued ascertaining the risk factors associated with male infertility. New diagnostic approaches including self-assessment, in-house semen analysis, genetic studies, telemedicine are on the rise. Over the past several years of research and development, several advanced diagnostic methods have been developed to determine sperm quality enabling accurate treatment and management . For complex issues, surgical therapies to restore the functioning of the male reproductive tract have also advanced a great deal . Despite advancements in surgical reproductive technology, male infertility treatment is still under the optimization stage.
There are some therapies that are aimed at improving the hormonal axis to optimize the production of gametes and improve fertilization thus avoiding assisted reproductive technique [3,4]. Simoni et al. (2020) have suggested treatment involving stimulation of spermatogenesis using gonadotropins based on the pathophysiological evidence and underlying genetic polymorphisms . The review study conducted by them revealed that follicle-stimulating hormone is helpful in sperm production among infertile men and further suggested that the effectiveness of the hormonal treatment depends on its serum levels and individual genetic variants such as Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the follicle-stimulating hormone subunit beta and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor genes.
Journal of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility publishes peer-reviewed articles on all the recent and relevant topics including endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction, menstrual disorders, menopause, congenital adrenalhyperplasia,tubalfactorinfertility, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, male factor infertility, congenital uterine anomaliesand alsotreatment strategies such as hormonal replacement therapy and in vitro fertilization.
Recently the Journal has published reviews and research articles on endometriosis and frozen embryo transfer technology. Endometriosis is characterized by an ectopic endometrial gland outside the uterus leading to significantly compromised life among the affected women. It has emphasized more systematic research on clinical diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis . Bhati (2021) evaluated the evidence on cryopreservation of embryos and frozen embryo transfer technique and compared the pregnancy rate outcome of the in vitro fertilization cycles tofresh embryo transfer among patients aged 20 to 45 years. The study revealed that the pregnancy rate was significantly higher among patients who received frozen embryo transfer due to the feasibility of maintaining the time gap between endometrium and embryo transfer during an assisted reproductive technique. These studies are of immense significance in restoring fertility .
Treatment of the underlying chronic medical condition and lifestyle changes have the potential to restore fertility, but might take longer time than that is generally expected by the young couples. Male partners are more at risk of infertility and therefore they need to be aware of balanced and adequate nutritional intake and need to strictly follow healthy lifestyle. For immediate results, hormonal therapies and surgical corrections are preferred for a positive pregnancy outcome.